About Me

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Dr. T. V. Rao is currently Chairman, TVRLS. A former professor and Board member at IIMA, Dr. Rao is the Founder President of National HRD Network and has been in the forefront of HRD movement in the country. Dr. Rao worked as a short-term consultant to UNESCO, Bangkok; USAID Indonesia; UNIDO Malaysia; and Commonwealth Secretariat, London and as HRD Consultant in India to over a hundred organizations in the public and private sectors. Dr. Rao received many awards including Ravi Matthai Fellow (AIMS), Asia Pacific HR Professional of the year 2019 (APFHRM) and Lifetime Achievement Award from Indian Academy of Management. Authored over 60 books.

Monday, September 11, 2023

Dimensions and Styles of Coaching


Styles of Coaching
T V Rao

Based on personal reflections of working with performance coaching and counselling

Coaching is a form of interpersonal conversation where one person (Coach) tries to influence the second person (Coachee or Coached). There is group coaching and team coaching possible, but I will restrict myself to two person coaching - formal or informal. Formal coaching can be paid, system driven (example performance coaching, career coaching) and more organised, while informal coaching is unplanned and can even happen between two people  without time lines and even acknowledging. Many conversations in our families, schools, colleges, organisations and communities are informal and all the time happening and some of these could be coaching conversations.

The essential component of coaching is “communicating to influence”. One person tries to influence the other consciously or less consciously. I will restrict myself to formal coaching in this note. The  purpose of coaching is to help the “Coached” or the “Coachee” to make choices and solve his/her own problems, issues, dilemmas, conflicts, stress situations etc. and  get the best out of self or emerge as better than before (more effective, happy, integrated, contented, powerful, empowered, peaceful, balanced, motivated, energised etc.). 

The following ten categories of behaviours are exhibited by a Coach in coaching the coached. They are not always mutually exclusive and may occur in combinations. These are:

1.      Listening: Actively listening to understand the issue or perspective. For this the Coach has to pay undivided attention to hear and also interpret the situation or experience the way the coachee experienced or experiencing or perceiving the situation or events. Listening involves listening to what is said and the feelings behind what is said (stated and unstated). Passive listening while may have a cathartic value does not help this. Listening with empathy and listening to feelings is a critical skill. For this other behaviours like probing may need to be used. 

2.      Probing (asking questions, seeking information or explanations etc.): In this the Coach attempts to understand by asking questions and details the way the Coachee perceives and interprets his/her work, life, events, situation, people etc. that are of significance to the Coached. This essentially depends on the agenda set for the session or the series mutually by both or singularly by the Coached.


3.      Reflecting or mirroring: This is a great tool in helping the Coach as well as the Coached understand the situation as he/she experienced. Mirroring is a mere paraphrasing of what has been said or feelings with which it has been said. It clarifies and helps the coach and coached to levelling or attaining a shared understanding.


4.      Exploring (generating or help generate alternatives): This goes beyond probing and asking questions. This can occur at three stages- in the beginning of conversation for understanding of the situation. In mid-course for generating alternate interpretations and exploring possibilities that enhance understanding of the situation and events. It could be at the end of the conversation for generating or an exploring alternative solutions, actions, behaviours etc. to be adopted by the Coached. In probing normally the coach plays a lead role while in exploring c the coach plays a suggestive role. Exploration can also be joint and sometimes facilitated by the coach and coachee driven.

5.      Appreciating and Empathising: Empathising is putting one-self into the shoes of the other and communicating how the Coach is in tune with the coached.  It involves accepting and sharing the feelings and interpretations of the coachee and (not necessarily approving or disapproving). This is essentially used to create a feeling of acceptance and unburdens the coached. This can be done at any point of coaching conversation. It helps build rapport. Sometimes the coach may share his/her own experiences or stories to support, mirror or reflect the actions and feelings of the coached. Appreciating and empathising helps making the coachee “feel, seen and heard” and experience unconditional positive regard in the conversation. 


6.      Generating alternatives or help generate alternatives: This is normally during action planning stage. This could be done by the Coached or Coach or both. It creates a sense of ownership if the Coached plays an active part in generating alternatives and the Coach merely helps generate alternatives.


7.      Hypothesising: This again may take place at different stages: interpretation of the past events to help coached appreciate others’ and gain clarity of the situation. It may also be used for anticipating the likely consequences of future actions or behaviours by the Coached. 

8.      Guiding (suggesting): In this the Coach suggests preferred solutions and likely consequences and helps the coached to make choices.

9.      Directing (indicating the desirable actions): In this the Coach gives based on experience or the coaching conversation, clear cut actions to be undertaken by the Coached. Leaves little freedom for the Coached to choose. 

10.   Reprimanding or Threatening:  This is expressing by the coach anger, disappointment and disapproval of actions, behaviours, proposals, plans etc. of the coachee. This includes pointing out the undesirable consequences of actions or events and reprimanding. In this the Coach points out to the negative consequences of not doing or doing or showing a particular action or behaviour. For example a friend of mine who was coaching a difficult client (coachee), after a series of coaching sessions observed that his coachee had no respect for his time and was always late or skipped his appointments. To teach him a lesson my friend shifted the venue from the client’s office to his own office and made him wait for a long time. When the coachee felt angry, my friend indicated to him that this was done deliberately to make him experience the reaction he has been generating in the coach and recounted the number of people the coachee has offended with his behaviour.  Later my coach friend also threatened to end the coaching contract. .

Coaches use a mix of all these. However some coaches may get stuck in one or more forms unconsciously and may over a period of time develop their own unique style.
Directive Coaches use categories 9 and 10 more.  Non-Directive coaches use categories 1 to 8 more. 

It is possible to observe or record a coaching session and analyse which category a Coach has used and how frequently. It is possible to come up with Directive and Non-Directive influence ratios by counting the number of times or amount of time used in Directive or non-directive coaching style. It is also possible to assess “Coaching Dominance” ratios by calculating the time spent by the coach versus the coached. I expect in future technological developments and AI applications will make it possible to have assessments of “terms used” (I suggest, let us explore, I think you.., why did you?  Do you understand... etc.?)   and classify them into Directive and Non-Directive coaching styles. It is also useful to analyse the self-directed talk and Coach-initiated talk in each conversation. This gives insights into the openness and efforts to be put in to draw the coaches out into conversations. Personally I am not a believer in machines substituting humans for coaching. However the way the world is changing to digitisation, anything may be a possible and we could soon have coaching machines.  

Listening coaches use this style of listening patiently to their coachees as they believe the purpose of coaching is to let the coachee freely express themselves. For them coaching is catharsis. Such coaches learn a lot about their coachees and the coached may get a feeling of being accepted, listened to and even understood. Such coaching helps build self-acceptance of the Coachee. Such style may not lead to action plans and in the event of action plans the coach chees feels more responsible as no ideas of the Coach were generated. This is an effective style of coaching. It has the risk of the Coach losing interest if there is only passive listening.

Probing coaches use categories 2 and 3 more liberally and frequently. They spend excessive time and effort in understanding and exploring. They are good at asking questions. Probing is a good way to go deeper into the psyche of the coachee and could result in a good diagnosis of the problems, issues and interpretations. Sometimes it has the risk of putting the coachee into a defensive mode. It could also divert attention from real issues and ends up as a game of questioning and responding. F Good q Coaches need to periodically review their style of probing and questions. Reflective questions are good and information seeking questions are useful only when the coachee is reluctant to get into details.

Empathetic coaches use categories 4 and 5 more frequently. They tend to share their experiences more frequently and keep confronting the coached with their own examples and illustrations to agree and empathise with the coached. Empathetic coaches also build higher levels of self-acceptance and create open climate for coaching.

Action driven coaches use categories 6, 7 and 8 more frequently and would like action plans to be formulated soon. In commercial coaching this may become a preoccupation of the Coaches in their eagerness to show change.

Directive coaches use categories more of 9 and 10 categories. This may be needed when the coachee is highly dependent and seeks solutions from the Coach. Normally most coaching theories discourage this as it does not build the independent decision making and sense of responsibility on the part of the coachee. However if the Coach has a mentoring role to play and the coachee is very new in early stages it may be useful to use this. Category 10 is not a desirable style as it could lead to many relationship issues. If the Coach has a mentoring and supervisory relationship with the Coachee it could be selectively sued but it may cease to be called c coaching and might end up as “Executive Action”. In good coaching situations it is better to avoid this.

This note is meant to create awareness in coaches of their own styles and make them more sensitive to unconscious sue of patterns in coaching which may become eventually styles.  

Suggested readings:


Pareek, U., & Rao, T. V. (1995). Counselling and Helping Entrepreneurs. The Journal of Entrepreneurship4(1), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/097135579500400102

Wednesday, September 6, 2023



TV Rao’s 15 Pillars for Success.

(Based on my books Effective People and Managers who Make a Difference Published by Penguin Random House)

Success is defined as establishing your identity and significance and impacting other around you (customers, wage providers, people your profession or department, organisation, nation and the society). Those who make a difference for others are the most successful people. There is not one way but many ways of impacting others. It is not what money or other material possessions indicate your success. It is the goodness you generate in others mind when they think of you. That is the invisible capital you acquire that indicates your success. To be successful this way, you need the following: (there is no sequence implied and all are important and all the time)


  1. Be Purposive - You should be clear about your goals and purpose in life. This may keep changing from time to time as you discover more about yourself and the needs of the society and people around you. The drive for discovering purpose- and acting with purpose are starting points. Clarify and keep clarifying your purpose. 
  2. Be Proactive – You should be action driven and initiative taking. You don’t wait for others to tell you to do anything. Take initiative and make things happen. Action orientation helps you discover more of yourself and also help others.
  3. Be Self-discovering and exploring – There is a lot of undiscovered talent in every one of us. Circumstances help or hinder us from exploring some parts. Develop an awareness of your talent- knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, traits etc. and how you may be coming across to others. Your self-identity is the platform you operate on. Make it stronger every day. Explore new dimensions of yourself wherever possible.
  4. Communicate and Communicate - Continuous communications help us to share, let others know our view points, establish our visibility and credibility by self-disclosure. Without communicating your impact will be on limited circles. Also your unique identify may not get fully established for yourself and for others.
  5. Learn Continuously – Seek feedback regularly from all possible sources. Your reflection also is your feedback. Constantly. Learn from various sources: books, people you meet, ceremonies you listen to, videos and films you see etc. Treat everyone as a source of learning, every day is different and brings with it new experiences and lessons. Feel the sense of growing as you experience learning. 
  6. Be Open to ideas and views of others – Besides sharing your views freely, be open to views, viewpoints and suggestions from others. Listening to others, understanding and appreciating different and differing points of view enlarges your worldview and equips you with capabilities of dealing with different realities. Share your own views, viewpoints, values, philosophy, reasoning behind your actions and activities. It is what you say and do that establishes your identity. Keep establishing your identity. Change is constant.
  7. Collaborate and work like a team member – The world and all great organizations are built by team work. Great people made teams to work and achieve their goals. We can accomplish a lot by working together. Develop team spirit. Understand the limits of working alone. 
  8. Be Trustworthy and trusting - Being trustworthy by honouring your commitments and carrying out honestly your promises you bring respect for yourself and the humanity at large. Nations with trust and trustworthiness have grown economically and otherwise. Speaking the truth is the best weapon we have. if your honesty and integrity are gone, your character is gone and everything is gone
  9. Be Authentic and speak your heart - be truthful in what you say. Don’t say things that you don’t mean. You may prefer not to speak than to speak untruths and lose your character. 
  10. Create Autonomy for yourself- Autonomy is creating space for yourself. Sometimes you may have to negotiate for it. Everyone needs space for independent action. Create this space for yourself. Time is also space and create the same for yourself. If organizations impose constraints work outside them. For example if you work in office from 9 to 5 you have all the time available between 5 and 9 next day. Exercise your autonomy to create your own roles and space for action. You have to find your own battlefield first to act and win. 
  11. Confront issues and difficulties - Don’t hide them to please others and suffer internally. Take help if required. Keeping issues under the carpet and with your self will not help anyone in the long run. Don’t insist your way if looking as the only way. Confrontation always means open for correction and boldly stating issues. Bringing out issues in open sometimes solves half the problems.
  12. Experiment and Innovate- Keep trying new ways of doing things. Be creative and innovative. There is no one way of doing things. Only when you experiment and try out you will know.
  13. Be Positive and respect others- Be grateful to everyone around. When we have something remember those who don’t have the same, and they are perhaps responsible for you to have it. Hope and optimism gives every one new energies to act and make things happen. Pessimism and loss of hope makes you stressed and depressed. Seek the company of those who energise you.
  14. Be Empathetic - See others from their point of view. Empathy makes you grateful and more positive. Experience poverty by living like a poor man once in a while. There are many ways of experiencing the poor by living with them, skipping meals (upvaas), sharing, forgiving, linking, visiting orphanages, homes for the poor, helping etc.
  15. Be Disciplined- Follow the rules of your organisation, place, and city, country where you live and be a good citizen besides a universal citizen. Discipline helps everyone to live peacefully by following rules of citizenship.

Success is being able to live a meaningful life with meaning to yourself and others and being known with an identity. Make a difference to others. 


Tuesday, August 8, 2023


Assessing HR Competencies in “HRD Score Card 2500: Tools for Renewal through HRD Audit” by T V Rao (KBS Publications, Mumbai)

T. V. Rao

To  be released on August 28, 2023: https://www.amazon.in/HRD-Score-Card-2500-Renewal/dp/8196329695/ref=sr_1_1?crid=2WAMS7S3LISAV&keywords=HRD+Score+card+2500&qid=1691558473&sprefix=hrd+score+card+2500%2Caps%2C372&sr=8-1)

This article is prepared to supplement the 10 HR competencies assessed in the book assigning 200 out of the 2500 points of HRD Score card. The competency review included here is expected to serve as an additional knowledge to Herd Auditors using the score a card book.

This book treats Competencies as a comprehensive concept and presents as competencies required for good HRD as:

  • 1.      Competencies of HR staff or professionals employed by the organization = 200 points
  • 2.      Continues development of Competencies through learning from various sources = 100 points
  • 3.      Leadership  styles of top management = 100 points
  • 4.      Learning from various sources by unionized categories and non- managerial staff = 60 points, and
  • 5.      Credibility and competence of the HR department = 40 points

The total points assigned are 500 points. The users of this scheme can use this with some flexibility but amounting to 500 points for consistency. Nearly 50% of weightage is given to HR employees and department and the remaining to top management, line managers and other employees. The assumption here is that HR D (learning and capacity building to meet the business goals of the firm consists of both HR partners and also other employees (top management, managers and non-managerial staff). The weightage given can be adjusted depending on the firm’s priorities. For example in a workmen heavy firm one can assign equal weightage to competency building or learning of managers and employees.

However a critical part of the firm’s competence comes from HR staff and department.

HR staff are assigned 200 points on the following competencies:

1. Business Knowledge and Business Leadership: Knowledge of business (products, services, customers, technology, competitors, developments, research and development) and all functions (sales and marketing, production and operations, finance, systems, MIS, logistics, services, etc.); knowledge of business capital (intellectual) and its constituents and methods of building business capital (competencies 1 and 2 of Agrawal and Rao, 2022: A & R))

2. Strategic Thinking: Analytical ability, cost and quality sensitivity, ability to spot opportunities, anticipate and find alternate ways of solving problems. (8 of Agrawal and Rao)

3. Functional Excellence: HR knowledge and HR delivery including culture sensitivity, empathy, coaching, and facilitation (Competence 3 of Agrawal and Rao- A & R)

4. Vision of the Function, Professional Leadership and Entrepreneurship (Competency 3 of A&R)

5. Leadership and Change Management: Communication, initiative, creativity and change management (Competencies 4, 5, 6 and 7 of A&R)

6.    Technology-savvy: including HR technology and research methods and systems driven (Competence 9 of A&R)

7.      Personnel Management IR, and Administrative Skill (Competency 3 of A&R). 

8. Execution Skills: Planning and monitoring skills, decision making, cultural sensitivity, persuasive skills, behavior modification techniques and group dynamics, ability to craft interventions for implementation, cost and quality sensitivity (Competencies 10& 11 of A & R).

9. Learning Attitude and Self- management: Self-awareness and desire to learn, time management, networking, research, and analytical skills (13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 of A&R. 

10. Personal Credibility (Competence 12 12 of A&R)

 A competence that is not included in our list is the Social leadership.

 On the basis of their study of 30 HR leaders Agrawal and Rao identified a list of 20 competencies, in five categories.

 A.    Business Leadership: contributions to business which deals with Business acumen, business information, business decision making, entrepreneurship, knowledge of all functions like fiancĂ© and accounts, marketing, production, logistics, Information technology.

 B.     Functional Leadership: Dealing with HR function and includes expertise in the HR function, its strategy, systems, processes, technology, talent management and execution etc. A good part of people management skills get classified here as it is a part of the HR profession.

 C.     Professional Leadership: largely dealing with contributions to the profession in the country and across the globe, adding to professional knowledge, dissemination, membership and leadership in professional forums and bodies and professional innovations that go beyond the organization and benefit to the profession and Professional bodies, writing, influencing Govt. etc.

 D.    Personal Leadership: Which largely tarts with self and self-management, self-renewal, initiative, drive, creativity and such other personal qualities that put the person in the leader’s seat. These are also required for functional leadership but these are more of Individual competencies going beyond the function.

 E.      Social Leadership:  Which largely deals with contributions to the society and humanity at large and is also contributions to society and larger causes.

These five categories competencies are explained below as given by Agrawal and Rao (2022)

1.      Business sense and Business Partnership: (Driving Business). HR function must be sensitive to the business goals and business realities. People are recruited to accomplish organizational goals and achieve the vision and mission of organizations and even keep creating one or take it to newer levels. While it is often attributed to the founders and CEOs and top management and Boards, in recent times HR has also played a great role in making employees feel that they work for larger goals than annul targets and KRAs. This enhances commitment and makes work enjoyable. A HR leader must learn about business, customers, marketplace, suppliers, and all other stakeholders besides the employees themselves. This requires the CHRO to acquire knowledge about the business he/she is working with and create a sense of purpose and partnership in all employees.

 Integrating ability: ability to connect discipline -- eclectic mind; appreciation for interdisciplinary solutions to problems Includes: Integrating Cross functional work and navigating proposals in the Board and global academic institutions, Integrating multiple cultures and Aligning HR agenda with business needs etc.

Functional Skills: Industrial relations as mentioned in the earlier chapter, being good at handling irate union, ability to deal with workers and workers categories, knowledge of law and laboratory education, Manageing compensation and benefits including Ability to creating the compensation structure, and manage wage negotiations; HR interventions for business results, OD and Talent Management etc.

4.      Driving Change  

5.      Communication skills

6.      Courage of Conviction

7.      People Leadership: These skills included: Interpersonal competence and encouraging and empowering juniors as well as other employees and setting a climate and culture of empowerment, investing on developing others, conflict management, managing differences and setting a climate of mutual respect and collaboration.

        Strategic Thinking This competence deals with both HR strategies and business strategies based on HR or the quality of talent the firm has.

9.    Systems thinking and Technology Savvy: Creating and establishing processes for defining and practices for engendering competitive corporate cultures, undertaken information dissemination and responsiveness to turbulence in the business environment. Systems like climate survey, fast track career progression, creation of non-technical officers’ career cadre, assessment center, and policies for master craftsmen were all indigenously developed.  They used systems and processes for business goals, and showed an ability to use technology,

10.  Decision making.

11.  Execution capability and skills  

12.  Credibility: Credibility comes from being fair, consistent, honest, upright, transparent, and consistent.  All competency models including CIPD, HR Scape, SHRM, and Dave Ulrich point to the importance of this competence. SHRM competence list for people profession calls it ethical practice (ability to integrate core values, integrity and accountability into all business decisions), and leadership and navigation (the ability to contribute to initiatives and processes withing the organization). Our HRLs depict these competencies w very aptly.

13.  Hard work and High Energy; an interesting competency observed in most of them is their high energy and hard work.

14.  Innovation:

15.  Learning Agility:

16.  Problem solving and Process Orientation skills:

17.  Adaptability and Resilience:

18.  Self-Management and Rejuvenation: Self-management as a critical competence of leaders is indicated by a large number of researchers and scholars. For example Peter Drucker, Daniel Goleman’s emotional intelligence and leadership concepts are based on this.

19.  Networking Skills and Networking with others: Networking and networking skills has been observed to be a critical competence in recent times. It helps the leader to discover new areas of work by being in touch with customers, employees, professional bodies, experts, and various other knowledge givers and sources of wisdom.

20.  Social Sensitivity, Sharing, service and sense of responsibility: Peter Drucker maintained that all good leaders have a high sense of social responsibility.

Human Service Managers: Spencer and Spencer (2008) identified 14 generic competencies for Helping and Human service Professionals. These include:

1.      Impact and Influence

2.      Developing others

3.      Interpersonal understanding

4.      Self confidence

5.      Self-control

6.      Personal effectiveness

7.      Professional expertise

8.      Customer service orientation

9.      Teamwork and cooperation

10.  Analytical thinking

11.  Conceptual thinking

12.  Initiative

13.  Flexibility, and

14.  Defectiveness or assertiveness


The 2021 Model of HR competencies of Dave Ulrich: The HRCS 8 study—hosted by The RBL Group, Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, and 19 regional partners across the globe— surveyed over 27,000 participants rating the competencies and performance of more than 3,500 HR professionals and more than 1,500 organizations. Below is the new HR competency model.

Accelerates Business and results. This includes: generate competitive market insights, have personal capital, have the skills to influence the business, and get the most important things done and build agility throughout the. Additionally, they must help drive agility throughout the organization. 

Advances Human Capability : This includes: the extent to which HR professionals can successfully advance human capability in the organization, deliver solutions, that improve both individual talent (human) and organization performance (capability) with specific focus on championing diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace to improve overall organizational performance. 

Simplifies Complexity : This includes the extent to which HR professionals can think critically and objectively about the challenges their organization think independently, and discover opportunity even during times of uncertainty or crisis. 

Mobilizes Information: This includes the extent to which HR professionals are able to access, analyse, and act on information by using technology to solve problems and influence decisions, and understanding of social issues that will impact the organization. 

Fosters Collaboration: Includes successfully fostering collaboration of working together, being open and self-aware, inspire trust and respect, and how effectively they build relationships that bring people together. 

The SHRM Competency Model provides the foundation for talent management throughout the HR lifecycle and helps organizations ensure that HR professionals are proficient in the critical behaviours and knowledge necessary to solve today's most pressing people issues. The model is based on input from 1200 professionals from 29 cities and 111 focussed groups from different cities. It is validated by 32000 subject matter specialists. The model consists of the following nine competencies: Human Resource Expertise (HR Knowledge); Ethical Practice; Leadership and Navigation; Business acumen; Consultation; Critical evaluation; Communication; Global and Cultural effectiveness; and Relationship Management. SHRM research indicates that LBIT model explains largely success of HR Professionals. T stands for technical knowledge, and three clusters including L for leadership, B for Business and I for Interpersonal relations. HR Leaders in our study undoubtedly LBIT competencies to a large extent. There could be minor individual variations in each of the components but in general there is a good fir.

CIPD’s Professional Map:  Designed to respond to the changing role of people professionals, the map aims to help people professionals face the future with confidence, by setting out the knowledge, values and behaviors they’ll need to thrive in a changing world. CIPD claims  for those working in HR or L&D, it will help them to make good decisions, perform at their best, further career and drive change in their workplace.

There are four key elements at the heart of the Profession Map. 1. Purpose-Having a shared purpose; 2. Core knowledge- (six core areas of knowledge create value, drive change and positively impact workplace: 1.Culture and behaviour, 2. Business acumen, 3. Analytics and creating value, 4. Digital working, and 6. Change) and 3. Core behaviours- (eight ways of thinking and acting that enable one to become an effective professional: Working inclusively, Commercial drive, Valuing people, passion for learning, Change, focus on insights, Ethical practice, Professional courage and influence and Situational decision-making. 4. Specialist knowledge- (9 areas of specialist knowledge within the people profession include: Organizational development and design, People analytics, Resourcing, Rewards, Talent management, Employee experience, Employee relations, Diversity and inclusion, and Learning and development)

National HRD Network: HRScape includes four Behavioral Competencies and eight Functional Competencies: 1. Credible Champion denotes the ability to demonstrate high integrity in personal and professional transactions: Integrity and Fairness; Building Trust; Emotional Maturity and Ethics; 2. Diversity and Inclusion: Diversity & Inclusion refers to the comprehensive set of organizational policies, processes & practices that respect, value and support differences, diverse perspectives at workplace for leveraging & maximizing the potential of all employees context of diversity, cross-cultural sensitivity and inclusive practices; 3. Service Orientation: Service Orientation refers to the ability to imbibe and demonstrate readiness to respond to the needs and concerns of internal and external customers; Customer Orientation, Problem solving and Process Orientation and Improvement and service delivery; 4. Managing Change: Managing Change refer to the ability to diagnose, design and deliver change processes for individual and organizational transformation; Designing Change Interventions, Managing Resistance and Communicating change

Functional Competencies Include: Employee Relations; Strategic HRM; Organizational Design; Workforce Planning and staffing; Talent management; Total Rewards; Learning and development and Performance Management.

As indicated in the beginning the competency framework used for HRD staff in the first volume of HRD Score card has only been slightly modified and largely retained as in the original. The main reason being the context of HRD Audit. Various parts of HRD are being audited under systems, culture and values and Impact. As an author I feel that we are not assessing CHROs or HR Leaders in the HRD Audit. We are assessing all HR staff and hence we don’t require to sue standards that are sued for CHROs and HR Leaders as in Agrawal and Rao’s book or Dave Ulrich’s and SHRM or CIPD model. These models however are relevant and if we examine the 2500 points they are reflected in some part or the other.




Agrawal, Arvind and Rao, T. V. (2022) Leaders in the Making: The Crucibles of Change makers in HR; New Delhi: Penguin Randomhouse India

L. M. Spencer and P. S. M. Spencer, Competence at Work Models for Superior Performance, John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

The CIPD Professional Map Downloaded on 7-9-2021): https://www.coursesonline.co.uk/everything-you-need-to-know-about-cipds-new-2021-qualifications/


SHRM Competency model: https://www.shrm.org/learningandcareer/career/pages/shrm-competency-model.aspx Downloaded on 7-9-2021

Dave Ulrich Competency model: https://www.hrdconnect.com/2022/02/28/dave-ulrich-5-hr-competencies-and-actions-to-enable-renewal-through-human-capability/

Rao, T. V. (2023) HRD Score card 2500: Tools for Renewal through HRD Audit, Mumbai: KBI Publishers